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如何让你的英语写作能力变强

2020-05-26 18:45:11

我深以为然。其实关于英文写作锻炼也是如此,失恋可遇而不可求,阅读和模拟却是每个人都能做到的。写作才能的提升一定离不开大量的阅读和模拟(写作练习)。在英文听说读写四项根本技艺里面,写作是最难控制和精进的一项。它也是一个人综合英语才能的表现,通常来说,写作程度高的人,其他听说读三项的程度也不会低。

知乎上曾经有人问“怎样提升一个人的文笔?”,最高票的答案是“阅读、模拟与失恋”。

关于英文写作提升,我们要处理的有两个主要问题:阅读和模拟。

先说阅读。

严厉来讲,我们所说的写作其实能够分为Creative Writing 和Academic Writing 两种,Creative Writing 会偏文学类一点,应用会相对少一些,而Academic Writing 则简直是一切英语学习者都必需用到的技艺,比方从四六级到托福雅思的考试作文,学术论文,日常邮件,陈说讲稿等,我们接下来要说的也是Academic Writing 这一类型的写作。

一个理想状况是,有不少人固然学了好几年英语,但学习过的材料大局部是为了对付考试,比方四六级的词汇书、作文书,或者各种习题材料,终归没脱分开考试的范围,除此之外读过的原版书简直一个手指头都能数得过来了。假如没有足够的素材储藏,他们写出来的作文可能会是这样的:

Nowadays,with the rapid development of society, purpose of education being changed.There are some people who think that competition in children should be made .Others believe that children who are taught to cooperate as well as become more useful adults.There are advantages and disadvantages for both of the arguments.

To begin with, what is good if a sense of competition in children is made? They can develop themselves more and more as they learn and study a lot to win from the competition.To prove this, in my country it is popular and common to have a tutor who come to students' house to teach extra pieces of study with paying a lot of money. ...

上面的这两段是我从一篇学生习作当选的,其文风和错误应该都十分典型:僵硬套用作文模板,中式英语,语法错误,内容空泛...形成这种问题的一个主要缘由就是读英语读得太少了,脑子里简直没有什么地道的英文储藏,写出来的东西也不会高明到那里去。

因而,进步英文写作程度的第一步是:大量阅读,阅读是一个质变引发质变的过程,在你读到一定量的时分,可能会在某一霎时忽然发现虚拟语气原来是这种觉得,动词搭配原来是这么回事...当你提笔写作的时分,你会在脑海里重现相似的例句。新手能够从泛读开端,选择一些生词较少,内容简短且情节精彩的小说,渐渐培育阅读的习气,有条件的能够去买个kindle, 阅读体验会更好。大量的阅读会带来词汇量的提升,经过阅读积聚的词汇了解最为深入,记忆效果也最好,最容易转化为积极词汇从而应用到写作中去。

如何让你的英语写作能力变强

在泛读的同时还要留意一点:强化语法。语法有多重要?举个例子,如今分词过去分词及各种从句的灵敏运用,主动被动的转换,虚拟语气表达的特殊感情,这些都是写作的根本技巧。语法不好,写作程度也不会高到哪里去,详细表现为通篇语病,只会用简单句型,不会写漂亮的长短句,偶然憋出个长句还是错的。不会运用高级语法,比方独立主格,虚拟语气等,句式的多样性和表达的灵敏性遭到很大的影响。因而我们有必要强化一下语法。根本思绪是先通读一两本语法书,树立起根本的语法框架,然后经过大量的阅读和听力练习不时稳固完善语法。目前市面上的语法书十分多,但内容其实都大同小异,选择好一两本认真啃下去就是,引荐《赖世雄语法》 或者剑桥的语法在用系列。

写作进阶:品经济学人,习上乘佳作

在大量阅读,强化语法的根底上,置信你如今写作时曾经可以做到少犯或不犯语法错误,写出来的英文还算凑合了,这个时分假如需求进一步进步文笔应该怎样做?能够采用精读经济学人以及运用英英词典和搭配词典的办法。以Academic Writing 为例,一篇漂亮的文章至少要做到以下几点:句式丰厚多变,长短句灵敏应用,用词精确出彩,论点丰厚,论证有力,逻辑严谨。而经济学人就满足这种“漂亮”文章的规范,是十分好的阅读和模拟素材。好的文章是模拟出来的,要学会模拟阅读时遇到的漂亮的词汇用法、句型构造、巧妙的比喻、诙谐的作风等等,渐渐化为本人的纯熟表达。

比方很多人习作中呈现的一个问题是句式单一,用词平凡。我们能够学习一下经济学人文章的写法,增加言语的张力。举个例子,下面的这一段节选自上周的经济学人文章The enemy within:

EMPLOYEES are often said to be a company’s biggest resource. It is equally true that they are its biggest liability.Scarcely a week goes by withouta companyfalling victim toemployees-turned-enemies-or-embarrassments. On July 20th Ashley Madison, a website for married people looking tohave an affair, announced that it had been hacked. Noel Biderman, the company’s chief executive, says that he thinks the attack was “an inside job”. On July 6th HSBC fired a group of employeeswhen it emerged thatthey had filmed themselves engaged inan “ISIS-style mock beheading” of an Asian colleague dressed in an orange jumpsuit.

The most familiar type of enemy within is thefraudster. The Economist Intelligence Unit, a sister organisation of The Economist, conducts a regular poll of senior executives on the subject of fraud committed by insiders. In 2013 the poll discovered that about 70% of companies had suffered from at least one instance of fraud,up from61% in the previous survey. Fraud is often petty: a survey of British employees for YouGov in 2010 found that a quarter of staffeligible forexpenses admitted to inflating claims. But fraud can also be moreaudaciousand more harmful: think of former employeessetting uprivals using stolen technology andpurloinedclient lists.

从上面的文章中我们能够学到什么?

4个写作时能够用上的句式:

1....are often said to...it is equally true that...

2.Scarcely a week/month/year goes by without...

3....when it emerged that...

4.discovered that about 70% ...up from 61%...

10个词汇和短语:

1.liability

2.fall victim to

3.have an affair

4.behead

5.fraudster

6.eligible for

7.inflate (to make a number or price higher than it should be)

8.audacious

9.set up

10.purloin

这仅仅是两小段而已,整篇文章能学到的东西更多。你能够有认识地将上面学到的单词和句式应用到你的写作中去,比方第一个句型"...are often said to...it is equally true that..."能够用来阐明事物具有两面性,这个句式不晓得比那句糟糕的 "there are advantages and disadvantages..." 要高到哪里去了。

送个福利给大家吧,我用kindle看经济学人的过程中碰到好的句型以及值得留意的词汇短语会把它们都做上标志,到目前为止曾经积聚了1000多条笔记了。我打算把它们共享出来。这1000多条笔记里既有像 "That so many people in so many different parts of the world are prepared to risk so much for this idea is testimony to its enduring appeal." 这样读起来铿锵有力的长句,也有像"Their likes and dislikes make or break products." 这样短小精悍,用词冷艳的短句。没事把这些句子读一读,学习其中的好词好句,并将它们运用到写作中去,置信你会有很大的收获。(笔记下载链接在文末)

如何让你的英语写作能力变强

写作中容易呈现的另外一个问题是:文章空空如也,整篇文章翻来覆去都是在表达同一个意义,而且论证不够有力,缺乏逻辑性,这样的文章即便辞藻再华美也是没有灵魂的。怎样让文章有内容有灵魂?看看经济学人是怎样做的:

经济学人的文章除了出色的言语表达技巧之外,最大的亮点其实它可以提出一套处理计划。怎样了解?举个例子,比方美国发作了严重的枪击案,其他的报刊普通这样报道:美国又发作枪击案了,这次又形成了几伤亡,凶手是什么什么背景,末了可能还会吐槽下枪支制度不合理,发几张照片煽煽情。

假如换做是经济学人的话,它除了报道根本新闻事实之外还会提出一个处理计划:大家别忙着悲伤了,冷静一下,既然如今曾经发作枪击案了,为了避免悲剧再次发作,我们需求 a.修正枪支管理法律 b.个人要增强枪支平安认识 c.回收局部管制枪支 d...... 有理有据地跟你摆事实,讲道理。而我们要学习的就是经济学人对新闻事情的解读剖析思绪,关注重新闻推断事物的逻辑过程,从而进步在写作时发散论点的才能以及论证的力度。

这篇文章就很好地表现了从发现问题到提出处理计划的过程。文章的背景是富有国度男孩的表现正在落后于女孩。我们来看看经济学人是怎样剖析问题提出处理计划的:

1. What can be done? Part of the solution lies in a change in cultural attitudes.处理计划1

2. Policymakers also need to lend a hand, because foolish laws are making the problem worse.处理计划2

3. Even more important than scrapping foolish policies is retooling the educational system, which was designed in an age when most men worked with their muscles.处理计划3

4. More generally, schools need to become more boy-friendly.处理计划4

四个段落总起句提出了四种处理计划,并在每一段细致展开,论点发散充沛,论证过程也十分有力度,整个处理问题的思绪十分明晰。写作的时分多领会这种发现问题-处理问题的思绪,像经济学人一样去论证你的观念。

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